La restriction du droit d’accès aux algorithmes de « Parcoursup » est soumise au Conseil Constitutionnel

roze-bruno Par Le 25/03/2020 20

Par une décision n° 433296 du 15 janvier 2020, le Conseil d’Etat transmet une question prioritaire de constitutionnalité portant sur la conformité à la Constitution de la restriction du droit d’accès aux algorithmes de Parcoursup.

En effet, comme cela a pu être exposé précédemment (voir le commentaire de la décision UNEF c. université des Antilles mentionnée infra), l’article L. 612-3 du code de l’éducation restreint le droit d’accès aux « informations relatives aux critères et modalités d'examen de leurs candidatures ainsi que des motifs pédagogiques qui justifient la décision prise » et exclut l’accès à leur code source.

Le Conseil d’Etat avait, quelques mois auparavant, jugé que ces dispositions s’appliquaient également aux syndicats étudiants et non uniquement aux étudiants eux-mêmes (CE. CHR. 12 juin 2019, UNEF c. université des Antilles, n° 427916, mentionnée aux tables).

Dans la décision commentée, il estime que ces dispositions posent une question de constitutionnalité qu’il transmet au Conseil constitutionnel.

Plus précisément, les requérants et leurs avocats soutenaient que ces dispositions méconnaissent l’article 15 de la Déclaration des droits de l’Homme et du citoyen. En effet, cet article prévoit :

« La société a le droit de demander compte à tout agent public de son administration ».

Or, le Conseil constitutionnel a considéré que cet article garantissait un droit constitutionnel d’accès aux archives publiques (décision n° 2017-655 QPC du 15 septembre 2017).

Certes, il a d’emblée limité (de manière classique) ce droit en rappelant qu’il devait se concilier avec les autres exigences constitutionnelles et l’intérêt général. Mais il n’en demeure pas moins qu’il a donné une assise constitutionnelle au droit d’accès aux archives publiques.

Le droit d’accès aux documents administratifs étant d’une nature très proche du droit d’accès aux archives publiques, il apparaît logique de s’interroger sur le caractère constitutionnel de ce droit et sur la constitutionnalité de la restriction apportée par le législateur au droit d’accès des étudiants et des syndicats étudiants aux algorithmes de Parcoursup.

Reste maintenant à attendre la décision qui sera prise par le Conseil constitutionnel.





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